Heart is the most vital organ of the human body, which requires adequate oxygen in order to contract and pump. This oxygen is obtained via haemoglobin, the reason why sufficient blood flow is important. Through adequate blood supply, the oxygen contained in blood reaches heart, allowing it to pump blood to the entire body through coronary arteries.

Inadequate amount of blood prevents the heart from contracting and pumping regularly. Heart disease is a broad term, referring to a variety of heart conditions, ranging from congenital heart disease to coronary artery disease caused by atherosclerosis.

Types of Heart Disease

Congenital Heart Disease

Disorder in the heart structure present at birth.


Dull to sharp chest pain/discomfort in the heart muscle due to oxygen-rich blood not reaching the heart. Pain may also be detected in neck, jaw, throat, upper abdomen and back.

Heart Attack

Myocardial Infarction often occurs due to atherosclerosis (built up of plaque inside coronary artery, blocking the flow of oxygen-rich blood).


Irregular heart rhythms.


Deterioration of myocardium (heart muscle) leading to heart failure.

Heart failure

Heart cannot pump sufficient amount of blood to meet body’s requirements.

Risk Factors of Heart Diseases

  • High cholesterol (primary risk factor)

  • Tobacco

  • Unhealthy diet

  • Physical inactivity (Obesity)

  • Alcoholism

  • Smoking

  • Medicines and medical procedures

  • Blood vessel inflammation

Approximately 80% of people are affected with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). If risk factors are not avoided or controlled, CVDs lead to premature deaths.

Common Symptoms of Heart Diseases

  • Shortness of breath

  • Pain in chest, arm and breastbone

  • Discomfort radiating to the back jaw, throat or arm

  • Palpitations

  • Sweating, nausea, vomiting and dizziness

  • Fullness and indigestion

  • Extreme weakness and anxiety.

Physiological study is a test that detects the electrical activity of heart. It helps to identify the origin of abnormal heartbeat. Additionally, this test helps doctors recognize whether a patient should undergo medication or surgical treatment.

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